Мифы о волке в фольклоре хакасов
МИФЫ О ВОЛКЕ В ФОЛЬКЛОРЕ ХАКАСОВ
THE LEGEND OF WOLF IN THE KHAKASS FOLKLORE
В статье в первую очередь рассматриваются мифы о сером волке в фольклоре хакасов. Далее эти мифы сопоставляются с «легендой о сером волке». Затем рассматривается традиционный хакасский ритуал «Чир-ине». Хакасы проводят этот ритуал с приходом весны. Ритуал «Чир-ине» проводится несколько раз с марта по май в сопровождении хакасских шаманов. Поэтому ритуал имеет черты шаманизма, где особая важность придается очищению окружающей среды.
In this paper, firstly, “the grey wolf myth” of Khakassia was discussed. Later, this legend, and “legend of grey wolf” of the kokturks were compared. Then, “chir ene”, the traditional ritual of Khakassia, was discussed. Khakass people celebrate this ritual with the coming of spring. “Chir ene” ritual is celebrated many times from March to May accompanied by the khakass shamans. So, the ritual has the characteristics of shamanism and a special importance is given to the environmental cleaning.
The legends about the wolf which is one of the wildest creatures in nature have been found in every nation 11. c. 9]. Such legends were present as among Turkic peoples, such as Scythians, Huns, Uigurs, Bashkirs, Khakas, also in other communities, such as Rome, Romanians.
In the first period of time, the “wolf thought of becoming a man, primarily in different societies. And then, this creature became the subject of legends. And overtime, the wolf became a “symbol”. For example, in the legend of the foundation of Rome, it is said that Romulus and Remus, who are brothers, raised a wolf.
According to Mircea Eliade, there are ’’legends about wolves” in the myths about the origin of the Dacians. Nevertheless, the “wolf from ancient times was an important creature for the Turkic peoples. This historical depth goes back to the Scythians. For example, E.K. Satma quotes from Bogdanov: “Military and social changes in scythian society are important for nomadic warriors; and they carry certain objects reflecting their ancestors (the wolf): horse harness, weapons, clothing, belts” [2, c. 267].
Many researchers emphasized that the “wolf” is valuable and important for the turkic peoples. We look at the “legends about the wolf’ in Khakassia, before describing the ritual of “chir-ene”.
Most of the ancient Turkic peoples adopted the “wolf as a totem”, so they produced legends about the “wolf’. The grey wolf (khak.: ah poorii) is a sacred animal and national symbol in the mythology of the turks, mongols, and altaians. The word is also pronounced as “bozgurt”, “boskord”, “pusgurt”. The tribes of some turks and mongols believe that they are descended from this sacred creature. Therefore, the “sacred wolf’ is a common “ongun” in all the turks and mongolian tribes.
The gray wolf comes up and shows the way when turkic peoples are in trouble or in danger. In front of the tents there are columns, the tops of which are “golden wolf heads”. The grey wolf is a national symbol of the turkic peoples. From the prehistoric era, the turkic peoples considered it sacred. The most important reason for this is that the turkic peoples believe that they originated from the “grey wolf’ [3, c. 37].
There are many proverbs and beliefs among the khakass about the wolf. The khakass believe that during the ritual, shamans turn to many animals, especially the “wolf’ [4, c. 124-125]. In addition to the legends of the grey wolf, there are other legends that mention the wolf among the khakass. Therefore, the khakass pay special attention to the wolf. And they believe that they are descended from wolves, both themselves and other turkic peoples. But it can be said that the khakass legend of the grey wolf is not very ancient, which arose later.
Valentina Kirilovna Tatarova also recorded the legend of the grey wolf of the khakass. She heard this legend from Mikhail Kilchichakov, a famous poet, writer and folklorist. The legend in short is as follows: huns exposed to enemy raid. And only the boy was left behind. A grey wolf finds the boy and nurtures him. Young live with a grey wolf, and they have boys. The enemy attacks again when he found out the news. Dad fights against the enemy with his sons, but the number of enemies is too much. The grey wolf’s husband is dying. Thus, the mother of the grey wolf turns her children into beads to protect them and take them away from the Yenisei. It revives children, covering the beads with her blood. She sends her children to different places with good wishes. The first child is called “Khir Khiz”, and the kirghiz descend from it. The second son’s name is “Tukyu”, and the turks come from him. The third is called “Uryl Khan”, and the bashkirs are derived from it. The fourth is called “Tadyr azakh”, and the tatars are descended from it. The fifth is “Azerbai”, and the azerbaijanis come from it. The sixth is “Oiran Khan” and from it comes the uryanhai. The seventh is “Az Bek”, and the Uzbeks are getting out of it. The eighth is “Sakha”, and the yakuts originate from it. The mother of the grey wolf turns to stone because of longing for her children [5, c. 79-87].
It seems that the legend has also gone since the days of the huns and the kokturks. And therefore there are historical bases of a legend. In fact, this legend in the turkic people, in general, is known as the “Epic of the Grey wolf’ and is based on the “Divanu Ltigati’t-Tiirk” and Chinese sources. Probably, the khakass variant is also based on the same source. Nevertheless, the legend among the khakass lives more firmly in the oral tradition. This can be understood by the names of eight children and the origin of their tribes. In the history you can see such turkic peoples as the azerbaijanis, the Uzbeks, the bashkirs, the uryankhai, the yakuts. The oldest of these peoples are the turks (Tukyu) and the kirghiz.
White wolf (figurative and natural sculpture of a gray wolf) is now in Uytak associated with the province of Askiz. In april 19, 2014 there was a ritual of chir-ene here. The legend of the grey wolf by the khakass is told depending on a stone sculpture resembling a wolf near Uytak in Askiz.
I and Gabraila (from Costa Rica), Yulia, Yulia Konstantinovna, Marina, Larisa, Slava Tatarov, Valentina Tatarova met in front of the state theater around 09.30, and we went by shuttle minibus. First, we stopped at the point at the exit from Abakan at 09.40. And here we sprinkled foods such as bread, milk, arak (wine), and so we did a little ritual. Then we descended to the White wolf non-stop. Here, first of all, we removed the goods from the minibus; then we carried out environmental cleanup and planted beech saplings brought from the city.
Meanwhile, three workers from the municipality of Askiz came to the area on a tractor, and they helped us. Then these people came to the ceremony from the shamanic associations, and they joined us: Anatoly, N. Elezarovna, P. Yakovlevich, L. Kostantmovich, Yu. Tambaeva, N. Nikitichna, Irina Petrovna, Antanina Ivanovna. After cleaning, the sarchin was installed on the ground, and its four sides were surrounded by ropes. And so the chalama was built. Later, colored ribbons were attached to the chalama.
Three men (I was one of them) took three branches from a juniper tree. And they blessed the people, purifying them on the ceremonial land with these branches. Then V. Tatarova cleaned them with incense in a bowl of all. Meanwhile, Tatarova reads such words as “syn (truth)”, “tyn (breath) ”, “kyn (connection with joyful land)”. Then three “ot-ine” (fire ceremony) were prepared and the fire was set and began to feed.
The ceremony was attended by the small drum Tatarova, the big drum by N. Elezarovna, the mouth komuz of Irina and Nina. They played these instruments while the fire was burning. Irina and N. Elezarovna played on their instruments until the fire completely went out. Meanwhile, black ribbons were thrown into the fire when it began to burn. Then the ceremony of feeding the “White wolf took place. Here, too, prayers were read. And such products as meat, soup, bread were served to the grey wolf. We also asked which ribbons were tied what color. Tatarova explained the meaning of flowers as follows: red symbolizes the sun; green, nature; blue sky; white, clean whistle .
Proverbs, legends, representations about the wolf among the khakass are not accidental. These products, protected among the khakass, are part of the legends of wolves among the ancient turks. Therefore, this legend has a noticeable similarity with the legend of the grey wolf of the ancient turks. The most remarkable case about the khakass is the connection of the “grey wolf legend” with the statue of a wolf in “Uytak”, where shamanic rituals are held. Thus, on the one hand, this legend feeds the national culture of the khakass through shamans and people; on the other hand, khakass culture also breeds new legends about wolves. Thus, folklore and culture support each other. And folklore ensures the continuity of the khakass national culture. In addition, these two elements prevent from forgetting own roots and the history of the khakass.
1. Eliade M„ Zalmoksis’ten Cengiz Han’a (Qev: Ali Berktay), Kabalci Yaymlari – Istanbul, 2006.
2. Satina E.K., «Iso Raz К Voprosu о Semantike Obraza Volka v Skifkom iskusstve», Arheologiya, Etnologiya i Antropologiya Evrazii: issledovaniya i Gipotezi (Material! Dokladov). – NGU 2012. – S. 67-68.
3. Cobanoglu О., «Koken Mitlerinin Ycrcllcsmc ve Guncellenmeleri Baglammda Kilavuz Bozkurt Motif! ve Oguz Kagan Destani», Prof. Dr. Suleyman T. Kayipov Armagani (Ed. A. Arvas vd.), Hakim Yaymlari. – Ankara 2013. – S. 29-40.
4. Burnakov V. A., Tsydenova D. Ts. Obraz Volka v Traditsionmh Predstavleniyah Hakasov // Martiyanovskie Kraevedceskie Clcniya (20102011 gg.): Sbornik Dokladov i Soobseniy. – Minusinsk, 2012. – S. 124-126.
5. Tatarova V. K„ Belaya Volcitsa. – Abakan: Hakasskoe Knijnoe Izdatelstvo, 2007. 19.04.2014 tarihli kamera kayitlan. AAOA (Abdulselam Arvas’in Ozel Arsivi).